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Followership, Leadership, Autonomy

少し前のこと。
2008年のラグビー大学選手権で、早稲田大学が2年ぶり14回目の優勝を遂げた。
そのチームの監督が、就任2年目の中竹竜二氏である。

中竹氏を語る上で重要なキーワードが、「フォロワーシップ」(Followership)である。
「フォロワーシップ とは」(http://itpro.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/Keyword/20070420/269065/)ではただ一言、「部下の力」であり、「上司の指導力や判断力を部下が補完し、組織成果を最大化することを狙う。貢献力と批判力で構成される」と続く。
これではあまりにも漠然としているので、中竹氏と共に働いていた仲伏達也氏の書いた「フォロワーシップ型組織の時代 ~早稲田大学ラグビー部に見る組織の進化~」(http://www.mri.co.jp/COLUMN/TODAY/NAKABUSHI/2008/0129NT.html)の文章を一部借りるなら、

  • 「リーダーに依存せず、共通の目標に向かって、構成員一人ひとりが自らの頭で考えながら行動する」力
  • 「いつでもリーダーになれるだけの素養」
  • 「リーダーの立場を理解しながら行動しつつも、必要な場合には恐れることなく諫言できる」力
をまとめたものだともいえるだろう。
ここでいうフォロワーとは、「後追い的に物まねをする人」のような悪い意味ではなく、リーダーについていき支える人、くらいに捉えればよいだろう。

「リーダーに依存せず、共通の目標に向かって、構成員一人ひとりが自らの頭で考えながら行動する」ことは、いわば「自律的(autonomy)に行動する」ということである。
ただし、これには自己管理など、字の如く「自己を律する」ことが必要になる。
また、「自らの頭で考えながら行動する」ことは、「意識の介在なしに行動する」 (http://www.dnp.co.jp/artscape/reference/artwords/a_j/automatism.html) オートマティズムとも、ニュアンスは異なる。
意識の介在なしに最善の行動が取れるのであればよいのだが、現実には難しいだろう。

「いつでもリーダーになれるだけの素養」というのは、とどのつまり「リーダーシップ」 (Leadership) があるかどうかにつながる。
ここでのリーダーシップは、フォロワーシップとある意味対極にある概念だ。
とはいえ、リーダーシップの資質だけ見れば(Wikipediaより引用)、たとえば
・孫子: 智・信・仁・勇・厳
・カール・フォン・クラウゼヴィッツ: 知性と情熱を兼ねる高度な精神・危険を顧みず自身の行動に責任を負う勇気・不確実な事態における洞察力・洞察に基づく具体的な行動する決断力など
と、リーダーシップに限らず有用なものが挙げられている。
ただし、リーダーシップは一朝一夕に身に付くものではなく、本人の素質もあるので、育成は難しい。
よき模範者がそばにいるなど、環境の良し悪しもあるからだ。
個人的には、恐怖で相手を服従させるリーダーシップよりは、能力の高さなどで畏敬の念を抱かれるようなリーダーシップを持つべきだと考えている。

フォロワーシップについては、以下も参考になるだろう。
http://cobs.jp/careerup/designing/bn/040310/02.html
カーネギー・メロン大学のロバート・ケリー教授が考案した、批判的思考(critical thinking)と貢献(commitment)の高低(それぞれ3段階)の組み合わせによるフォロワーシップのスタイルを紹介している。
上記記事から引用すると、スタイルは以下の5つになるという。
1. 批判型(リーダーを軽視し、秩序を乱す)=高批判的思考×低貢献
2. 盲従型(リーダーに盲従してしまう)=低批判的思考×高貢献
3. 消極型(妥協と諦めによって服従する)=低批判的思考×低貢献
4. 官僚型(官僚主義・形式主義に陥る)=中批判的思考×中貢献
5. 模範型(リーダーを適切にフォローできる)=高批判的思考×高貢献
これも記事からの引用だが、「良きフォロワーとは、単にリーダーに追従するのではなく、批判的思考と貢献の高い次元でバランスのとれている人材」である。
最後に、普通はリーダー(上司)を自分で選べないので、「偶然の機会を生かすことが大事」とも書いている。

「フォロワーシップ型組織の時代~」にはこのようなことも書かれている。
「不確実性の高い現在の社会で、一人あるいは一部のリーダーに依存する組織は、リスクへの感度が悪く、危機に脆く、組織として発揮できるパフォーマンスにも限界がある。フォロワーシップ型の組織こそが、真に強い組織であり、高いパフォーマンスを発揮することができる。何よりも、構成員自身が高いモチベーションを維持し、能力を発揮し、成長し続けられる」
総論としては正しい。
私もこの考えに共感できる。
ただ、強力なリーダーシップを持つ1人の人間が引っ張る組織にもそれなりの強みはあることは、頭の片隅に置いたほうがよいだろう。
カルロス・ゴーンの下V字復活を遂げた、日産の例を持ち出すまでもなく。

フォロワーシップもやり方を間違えれば、組織がばらばらになる恐れもある。
中竹氏いわく(参考: 「情熱大陸」http://www.mbs.jp/jounetsu/2007/01_21.shtml)、「どんなリーダーが来てもそれをきちっと支えてあげるフォロワーが成り立ってる組織ってのが一番強いなってのをずっと感じてた」とのことで、自分は「『リーダーが要らない組織を作り上げる』ためのリーダー」と思っていたとのことだ。
しかし、この「リーダーが要らない組織」という言葉だけが独り歩きし、組織やグループのメンバーが目的を共有せず、自分勝手に行動してもよい、と勘違いしてしまうと、最悪の場合組織は空中分解一歩手前の危険な状態に陥る可能性もある。
ゆえに、フォロワーシップを生かすための様々なさじ加減は難しいといえる。

とはいえ、フォロワーシップ型組織は現代において有効な組織の形態であろう。
現代社会では、リーダーの指示の下トップダウンで動くだけではだめなのだから。
目的を共有し、またリーダーの立場を理解する一方、上からの指示を待つことなく、時にはリーダーへの進言も含め、自律的に考え行動することの大切さは、いまもこれからも変わらない。

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